Thanks to Giammarco Boscaro for sharing their work on Unsplash.

Why Philosophy matters more than ever in the Age of Entanglement?…

“Truth in philosophy means that concept and external reality correspond”…

— Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel[1]

hilosophy[2] is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence.

The Western philosophical[3] tradition dates back to around the 6th Century BC where various Greek Philosophers such as Pittacus[4], Pythagoras[5] and Thales[6] practiced a “love of wisdom”[7] ( Philosophy) — an exploration of the fundamental questions pertaining to existence, values, reason, knowledge, mind, and language.

By the third Century AD, the first historian of philosophy, established the traditional division of philosophical inquiry into three parts:

“Natural philosophy (i.e. physics, from Greek: ta physika, lit. ‘things having to do with physis [nature]’) was the study of the constitution and processes of transformation in the physical world”.

“Moral philosophy (i.e. ethics, from êthika, ‘having to do with character, disposition, manners’) was the study of goodness, right and wrong, justice and virtue”.

“Metaphysical philosophy (i.e. logic, from logikós, ‘of or pertaining to reason or speech’) was the study of existence, causation, God, logic, forms, and other abstract objects (meta ta physika, ‘after the Physics’)” [8].

More recently, 20th Century Philosopher Linguist and Poet — Jean Gebser[9] — introduced a different lens on how Humans collectively perceive Reality.

A theory[10] of Human Consciousness that built on the traditions of Philosophy and all other areas of Human Endeavour.

An emergent phenomena that sees our consciousness go through major periods of evolutionary transition via “jump” states (ie “mutations”).

Prior consciousness structures operating in parallel with emergent structures.

Essentially , the evolutionary perception[11] of Reality by Humans as they responded to shifts in the Fitness Landscape — agency, context and the complexity of their environment.

An evolutionary interplay between the mind, body and the world.

A form of Embodied Intelligence[12].

“Gebser understood the term, “conscious” was neither knowledge nor conscience but should be understood in the broadest sense as wakeful presence[9]”…

Gebser identified 6 structures of Consciousness being :

The archaic structure

The magic structure

The mythical structure

The mental structure

The integral structure

His idea and thesis around these “jump state” transitions in Human Consciousness led him to explore history across almost every major domain of Human Endeavour where he saw patterns of “emergence” and “collapse” in how humans perceived and were present to Reality.

It culminated in a major work published between 1949 to 1953 titled – Ursprung und Gegenwart[13] – which can be translated to – The Ever- Present Origin.

Gebser’s major thesis was that Human Consciousness is in transition (a series of Liminal States), and that these transitions are “mutations” and not continuous.

These “jumps” or transformations involve structural changes in both mind and body.

Gebser held that previous consciousness structures continue to operate in parallel to the emergent structure.

According to Gebser for the last +2000 years Humans have largely exhibited a Mental Structure form of consciousness.

This Mental Structure view of consciousness can be traced back to Greek Philosopher Aristotle[14] and his invention of the concept of Logic which was outlined in his 6-part book , The Organon[15].

Its core idea was that arguments could be “valid” or “true”[15][16] based off their logical structure that were independent of the words involved.

He also outlined a set of foundational Axioms[15][17] — statements or propositions which were regarded as being established, accepted, or self-evidently true — from which his logical system could be developed.

These Axioms included – An object is what it is (Law of Identity) – No statement can be both true and false (Law of Non-contradiction) – Every statement is either true or false (Law of the Excluded Middle).

“That Logic has advanced in this sure course, even from the earliest times, is apparent from the fact that, since Aristotle, it has been unable to advance a step, and thus to all appearance has reached its completion”…

- Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)[18]

This powerful idea became the burning flame for human progress and prosperity for 2 millennium.

It was the catalyst for the Age of Enlightenment[19] & Reason[20] and the Industrial[21] & Digital Revolutions[22] that followed.

It provided the foundations for modern day mathematics[23], boolean algebra[24], the Scientific Method[25], Newtonian Physics[26] & Quantum Mechanics[27], Information Theory,[28] Genetics[29], the Turing Machine[30], Computation[31], Finance and Economics.

It elevated the Natural Sciences[32] to the centre of our modern day Society including our economy, education system and social power structures – experts[33] and technocrats[32] were now the managerial class in the pursuit of a techno-utopia [34].

However, by the later part of the 20th Century and early part of the 21st Century something was amiss (a Gap — [61]) with this framework of Reality[35]

“Reality is created by the mind, we can change our reality by changing our mind”…

- Plato

The emergence of Quantum Mechanics[36] was one of the first signs of an emerging paradox and cognitive dissonance.

The mathematical equations such as the Schrödinger Equation[37] developed were highly effective in being able to measure the state of a quantum mechanical systems.

However, despite these powerful prediction capabilities there remains until this day conjecture[38] and debate as to whether there is a Universal Theory of Quantum Reality — A Theory of Everything.

Or were there limits to Reductionism in an emergent complex Material World?

A World with as many Clouds as Clocks

The second profound shifts was the rapid globalisation of economies and the emergence of networks[39] – shipping, travel, energy, telecommunications, trade, finance culminating in the emergence of the internet in the second half of the 20th Century. Ultimately resulting in the creation of The Mesh [40] and the increasingly collision of a Digital Virtual World with a Physical Real World [41]— A 21st Century Public Sphere [42].

The third was the increasing recognition of the finite capacity of our Planet, the Anthropocene[43] and the recognition of the planet as a complex self regulating system — Gaia[44].

The fourth was the emergence of the Knowledge Age[45] and the internet becoming a form of global Collective Sensemaking[46] and a dynamic non linear complex evolutionary computational brain[47]. An extension of the Mind beyond our physical bodies[48] aided by technology tools such as the mobile phone[49], the digital cloud, digital computation[50] and a ubiquitous Internet – The Third Wave[51]. A form of Collective Intelligence [52].

The fifth was the emergence of bottom up powerful computation based off large volumes of data and examples using advanced statistics to derive patterns[50] and correlations. Deep Learning & Machine Learning systems where cause-effect could not be explained because of the System Complexity[53] but at the same time these Ai Systems were increasingly being used as powerful computational tools in prediction and perception. This resulted in the emergence of the Intelligent & Knowledge Organisation[45] that generates new Knowledge and Learns how to Learn[45].

The six was the development of new decision making frameworks and ideas for making sense of the Complexity of Reality including Sensemaking[55], Collective Sensemaking[46], Semantics/Language[56], The Public Sphere[42] — together with advances in foundational knowledge for a complex uncertain world including the Free Energy Principle[56], Non Ergodicity [57], Simplicity Theory[58], Theory of Reflexivity[59],The Adjacent Possible[60] and even the OODA Loop[61].

The seventh has been the emergence of Information Theory[28] and the rapid integration of this Theory into increasing parts of our Life[62] including evolutionary biology, computation , neuroscience, identity, physics, innovation, genetics, bioengineering , economics intelligence and even our understanding of What is an Individual[63]?

The eighth has been an increasing recognition of the limitations of current risk models[64] in being able to quantify the uncertainty[66] of Reality in decision making – Fat Tails, Black Swans & Knightian Uncertainty[65].

All of these highlighted a world of increasing complexity, uncertainty and interdependencies and the increasing limitations of a Society that had become largely anchored in the Algorithmic Mind — resulting in an ongoing clash of Two Cultures[32] and the reluctance to embrace an emergent Third[32].

A shift from an Age of Reason to the Age of Entanglement[67][68].

“Complexity is the increasing Dimensionality of our Interrelationships and Interdependencies from which arise nested patterns of adaptive order in an emergent World” …

- The Complexity Void

Our prism of Reality has literally moved from perceiving Reality as mechanical deterministic linear systems from the Industrial Age to dynamic non linear stochastic and non-ergodic emergent systems of the Quantum Age .

The limits of Determinism, Reductionism, non scaling and non contextualised Rationality and Cause-Effect in Complexity[69]

The Philosophy of Science highlights that Science is not an objective way of looking at Reality with absolute binary truths.

Just like Gödel proved in his Theorem of Incompleteness[70] when he demonstrated the Limits of Logic via the underlying implicit assumptions resulting from the foundational Axioms [15] [17].

The same analogy can be applied to Science.

A quote from a recent 2019 Paper — Philosophy of Biology: Philosophical bias is the one bias that science cannot avoid [71]:

“Scientists seek to eliminate all forms of bias from their research. However, all scientists also make assumptions of a non-empirical nature about topics such as causality, determinism and reductionism when conducting research. Since these ‘philosophical biases’ cannot be avoided, they need to be debated critically by scientists and the philosophers of science”…

Philosophy matters more than ever in the Age of Entanglement.

By changing the Axioms we change our perception of Reality.

By changing the Axioms we change the World.

“How one encounters Reality is a choice”…

- Martin Heidegger

What if we revisited our perception of Reality and we moved beyond the foundational Axioms of Logic [15] [17] — a shift from reflecting classical binary truths to new Integral Reasoning for Quantum probabilistic truths ( a search for truths rather than absolutes) ?

What if the new fundamental Axioms of Reality were a recognition of its Complexity, Uncertainty and our Human Condition?

Reality being an emergent phenomena based off information flows[62][62a].

In such a world there would be a recognition of the limits of the compressible and a recognition of the incompressible.

Logic provides us with a method of compressing complexity and shape heuristics, however not all of Reality can be compressed.

We are Agents in the World.

“Life is not a problem to be solved, but a reality to be experienced”…

- Soren Kierkegaard

The importance of cognitive diversity[72], collaboration[7], learning, humility in leadership[73], the sciences, arts and our shared lived shared experience[74].

A fallibilist way of looking at the Scientific Method.

An appreciation that we are all actors in the world . Interdependent and Interconnected. Embodied in the complex systems we inhabit.

A shift from a Mental Structure perspective of Consciousness to an Integral Structure.

One that reflects a jump state transition from a Classical Binary Abstract view of Reality to a Quantum Entangled N^2 view [36].

The importance of Patterns and Relationships in sitting alongside Algorithms.

The importance of Perception and our lived Experience in sitting alongside Reason.

The importance of Sensemaking [54] and Collective Sensemaking [46] ( Meaning-making [42]) — Context — Experience — Meaning — in sitting alongside Logic.

The importance of Induction and Abduction in sitting alongside Deduction.

The importance of the Geometric Mind – Patterns of Thought – and Semantic Mind – Relationships of Meaning – in sitting alongside the Algorithmic Mind – Abstraction of Ground Truths & Ground Motives.

The importance of Negative Capability[75] that enables us to be comfortable with recognising the limits of what we really Know and the emergent [76] uncertain — The Adjacent Possible[77] — nature of Reality…

To live is to flow [77]…

Footnotes:

[1] Hegel — https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hegel/

[2] Philosophy — https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/philosophy

[3] Western Philosophy — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_philosophy

[4] Seven Sages— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Sages_of_Greece — and — Pittacus — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittacus_of_Mytilene

[5] Pythagoras https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pythagoras

[6]Thales — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thales_of_Miletus

[7] Wisdom — wisdom

[8] Traditional Division of Philosophy — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy

[9] Jean Gebser — http://www.gaiamind.org/Gebser.html

[10] Seeing Through the World: Jean Gebser and Integral Consciousness — https://revelore.press/product/seeing-through-the-world/

[11] The Stages of Life According to Jean Gebser — https://www.institute4learning.com/2020/02/12/the-stages-of-life-according-to-jean-gebser/

[12] The implausibility of intelligence explosion — https://medium.com/@francois.chollet/the-impossibility-of-intelligence-explosion-5be4a9eda6ec — and — We are building a theoretical framework that will guide the creation of artificial agents that adjust their neural networks (brains) to feedback from their bodies and surroundings — in essence to learn how to navigate their surroundings — https://www.santafe.edu/research/projects/theory-of-embodied-intelligence

[13] Ursprung und Gegenwart — https://www.amazon.com/Gesamtausgabe-02-Ursprung-Gegenwart-Teil/dp/3907160029

[14]Aristotle — https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/

[15] Aristotles Logic — The Organon — https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-logic/

[16] The Public Sphere — Plato — Truths — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-public-sphere-ff07f74d7f22

[17] Aristotle and Mathematics — https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-mathematics/

[18] Immanuel Kant — https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/

[19] The Age of Enlightenment — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Enlightenment

[20] The Age of Reason — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Age_of_Reason

[21] Industrial Revolution — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution

[22] Digital Revolution — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Revolution

[23]What is Modern Mathematics? — https://medium.com/thesociablesolipsist/what-is-modern-mathematics-for-the-non-mathematician-4c59981de487

[24] Boolean Algebra — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boolean_algebra

[25] Scientific Method — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method

[26] Newtonian Physics — https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/mathematics/newtonian-physic

[27] Quantum Mechanics —qm

[28] Information Theory —https://web.mit.edu/6.933/www/Fall2001/Shannon2.pdf

[29] Genetics —https://www.britannica.com/science/genetics

[30] Turing Machine —https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-machine/

[31] What is Computation? — https://youtu.be/nykOeWgQcHM

[32] Synthesis… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-synthesis-of-two-cultures-90989cfb462e

[33] The Survival Instinct… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-survival-instinct-21054abdff7

[34] Modern Utopia — modernutopia.html

[35] Australia is living through a ‘time between times’ — https://www.afr.com/technology/australia-is-living-through-a-time-between-times-20200730-p55gz6

[36] When two worlds collide… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/when-two-worlds-collide-645e95bbfba7

[37] Schrödinger Equation — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schr%C3%B6dinger_equation

[38]The Nature of Quantum Reality — HAPP Centre — Dr Jim Baggott — https://youtu.be/VGR68Zl1k8w

[39] The Seventh Sense — Power, Fortune, and Survival in the Age of Networks — https://www.hachettebookgroup.com/titles/joshua-cooper-ramo/the-seventh-sense/9781478909101/

[40] The Mesh… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-mesh-5db1311fd139

[41]The collapse of context and the elimination of friction… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-collapse-of-context-and-the-elimination-of-friction-eb1780e50d65

[42] The Public Sphere —https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-public-sphere-ff07f74d7f22

[43]Anthropocene — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropocene

[44] Gaia —gaia — being-of-a-living-earth

[45]Re-Imagining Organisations for the 21st Century… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/re-imagining-organisations-for-the-21st-century-94d32e4e7e91

[46] Collective Sensemaking — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/collective-sensemaking-90826d1cb007

[47]The Internet Is a Brain — https://hbr.org/2008/06/the-internet-is-a-brain.html — and — How the Internet is Shaping Our “Global Brain” — https://hbr.org/2012/11/how-the-internet-is-shaping-our

[48]The Mind-Expanding Ideas of Andy Clark — The tools we use to help us think — from language to smartphones — may be part of thought itself — https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/04/02/the-mind-expanding-ideas-of-andy-clark

[49]Steve Jobs on Why Computers Are Like a Bicycle for the Mind (1990) — https://www.brainpickings.org/2011/12/21/steve-jobs-bicycle-for-the-mind-1990/

[50] The Power of Patterns… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-power-of-patterns-e1dc4c2352aa

[51]The Third Wave —A Entrepreneurs Vision of the Future — https://www.thirdwavebook.com

[52] The emergence of Collective Intelligence… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-emergence-of-collective-intelligence-1bd3f2e7a7c4

[53] The Complexity Void — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/unbundling-complexity-503c77f0b261

[54] Sensemaking, the core skill for the 21st Century… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/sensemaking-the-core-skill-for-the-21st-century-ebc8c679cfe8

[55]A conversation with Noam Chomsky: Liguistics, Seti, Cognitive Science & Artificial Intelligence — — http://imagination.ucsd.edu/_wp/podcast/a-conversation-with-noam-chomsky-linguistics-seti-cognitive-science-artificial-intelligence/

[56] Free Energy Principle — https://youtu.be/NIu_dJGyIQI

[57] Erdogocity — Ergodicity

[58] Simplicity Theory — https://simplicitytheory.telecom-paris.fr

[59] Theory of Reflexivity— 0ca06172-bfe9–11de-aed2–00144feab49a

[60]The Adjacent Possible — https://youtu.be/GJwoHyJDVLk

[61] OODA Loop —OODA_loop and — The Reality Gap —the-reality-gap-74da0e5e869a

[62] Redux… — Knowledge flows for a world of Complexity — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/redux-3efa43c1bb3e

[62a] Beyond Maths to Meaning — https://physicsworld.com/a/beyond-maths-to-meaning/

[63]The information theory of individuality — https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12064-020-00313-7

[64] Against the Gods… — against-the-gods-958f510c082e

[65] The Survival Instinct…https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-survival-instinct-21054abdff7

[66] The Survival Instinct — Part 2 …https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-survival-instinct-part-2-e1c2782daae6

[67] The Age of Entanglement… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-age-of-entanglement-556de9318378

[68] If you don’t become the ocean you’ll be seasick every day… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/if-you-dont-become-the-ocean-you-ll-be-seasick-every-day-25034bfa44ac

[69] The Limits of Logic… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-limits-of-logic-e6c27daf7687

[70]Theorem of Incompleteness — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6del's_incompleteness_theorems

[71] Philosophy of Biology: Philosophical bias is the one bias that science cannot avoid — 44929 — and — PMC6415937

[72]The urgent shift required towards Ecosystem Leadership… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/the-urgent-shift-required-towards-ecosystem-leadership-cc4a9f57f050

[73]Some thoughts on the knowledge age, leadership, management & skills ….. — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/some-thoughts-on-the-fourth-industrial-revolution-leadership-management-skills-f8abab420929

[73]Humility is truth and the sea of ignorance… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/humility-is-truth-and-the-sea-of-ignorance-c289112cbd57

[74] In search of wisdom in the information and knowledge age… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/in-search-of-wisdom-in-the-information-and-knowledge-age-ccb20f8b6d79

[75] Negative Capability… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/negative-capability-f3bf749a87ec

[76] Emergence …— https://medium.com/@rlschutte/emergence-936c096422a5

[77] To Live is to Flow… — https://medium.com/@rlschutte/to-live-is-to-flow-eaf8ad4ccec

Innovation, Intrapreneurship, Entrepreneurship, Complexity, Leadership & Community Twitter: @complexityvoid

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Innovation, Intrapreneurship, Entrepreneurship, Complexity, Leadership & Community Twitter: @complexityvoid